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Referencing

A guide to referencing styles at GSM London

Referencing examples using the Harvard style

 

Elements Example, including punctuation
Author surname, initial(s) Egan, J.
Year of publication (in brackets) (2015)
Title (in italics), followed by a full stop Marketing Communications.
Edition (if not the 1st edition) 2nd edn.
City of publication, followed by a colon London:
Publisher, followed by a full stop Sage.

 

In text citation examples:
...with all elements on display (Egan, 2015). 
or, if you have quoted directly, also state the page number or page range
With regards advertising, Egan (2015, p.54) states that "the first really modern innovation came with the printing press".
If you have used the author's surname in your sentence then only the year of publication, with a page reference where appropriate, is placed after in brackets
Egan (2015) notes the importance of technological innovations...

 

Reference list
Egan, J. (2015) Marketing Communications. 2nd edn. London: Sage. 

 

 

Elements Example, including punctuation

Author surname, initial(s) and author surname, initial(s)

Kotler, P. and Armstrong, G.
Year of publication (in brackets) (2016)
Title (in italics), followed by a full stop Principles of Marketing.
Edition (if not the 1st edition) 16th edn.
City of publication, followed by a colon Harlow:
Publisher, followed by a full stop Pearson.

 

In text citation examples:
...with the marketing mix essential to success (Kotler and Armstrong, 2016).
or, if you have quoted directly
Kotler and Armstrong (2016, p.370) state that "multichannel marketing occurs when a single firm sets up two or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments."
If you have used the authors' surnames in your sentence then only the year of publication, with a page reference if quoting directly, is placed after in brackets
Kotler and Armstrong (2016) note the importance of customer experience...

 

Reference list
Kotler, P. and Armstrong, G. (2106) Principles of Marketing. 16th edn. Harlow: Pearson.

 

 

Elements Example, including punctuation
Author surname, initial(s), author surname, initial(s) and author surname, initial(s) Adcock, D., Halborg, A. and Ross, C.
Year of publication (in brackets) (2001)
Title (in italics), followed by a full stop Marketing: Principles and Practice.
Edition (if not the 1st edition) 4th edn.
City of publication, followed by a colon Harlow:
Publisher Pearson.

 

In text citation examples:
...whilst maintaining relationships with all key customers (Adcock, Halborg and Ross, 2001).
or, if you have quoted directly
Adcock, Halborg and Ross (2001, p. 24) argue that "everyone in the organisation must aim to serve the customer, whether directly or indirectly."
If you have used the authors' surnames in your sentence then only the year of publication, with a page reference if quoting directly, is placed after in brackets
Adcock, Halborg and Ross (2001) also note the importance of customers...

 

Reference list
Adcock, D., Halborg, A. and Ross, C. (2001) Marketing: Principles and Practice. 4th edn. Harlow: Pearson.

 

 

Elements Example, including punctuation
First author surname, initial(s) listed, followed by et al. Johnson, G. et al.
Year of publication (in brackets) (2017)
Title (in italics), followed by a full stop Exploring Strategy: Texts and Cases.
Edition (if not the 1st edition) 11th edn.
City of publication, followed by a colon Harlow:
Publisher, followed by a full stop Pearson.

 

In text citation examples:
...with higher customer usage, the value of the platform duly increases (Johnson et al., 2017).
or, if you have quoted directly
The multi-sided platform model "brings together two or more distinct, but interdependent groups of customers" (Johnson et al., 2017, p. 233).
If you have used the author surname in your sentence then only the year of publication, with a page reference if quoting directly, is placed after in brackets
In addition, Johnson et al. (2017) note that the same customer base...

 

Reference list
Johnson, G. et al. (2017) Exploring Strategy: Text and Cases. 11th edn. Harlow: Pearson.

 

 

Elements Example, including punctuation
Author(s) surname(s) initial(s) Jay, S., Davies, P. and Reid, M.
Year of publication (in brackets) (2016)
Article title (in single quotation marks, followed by comma) 'Brexit: Implications for Employers',
Journal title (in italics, followed by comma) Employee Relations Law Journal,
Volume (followed by comma) 42,
Issue no. (if available) (in brackets, followed by comma) (3),
Page range, followed by full stop pp. 68-82.

 

In text citation examples:
...with employers likely facing increasing uncertainty (Jay, Davies and Reid, 2016).
or, if you have quoted directly,
(Jay, Davies and Reid, 2016, p. 76)
If you have used the author's surname in your sentence then only the year of publication, with a page reference where appropriate, is placed after it in brackets, e.g.
Jay, Davies and Reid (2016) suggest that...
or, if you have quoted directly, 
Jay, Davies and Reid (2016, p. 75) define this as...

 

Reference list
Jay, S., Davies, P. and Reid, M. (2016) 'Brexit: Implications for Employers', Employee Relations Law Journal, 42 (3), pp. 68-82. 

 

 

Elements Example, including punctuation
Author (surname, initial) or organisation VisitBritain
Year website was published, last updated (in brackets) (2018)
Title of web page (in italics) followed by a full stop Britain's visitor economy facts.
Available at:URL Available at: https://visitbritain.org/visitor-economy-facts
(Accessed: DD MM YYYY) followed by a full stop (Accessed: 19 November 2018).

 

In text citation examples:
...indicated by recent figures (VisitBritain, 2018). 
or, if you use the name of the author or organisation in the sentence
VisitBritain (2018) notes that inbound tourism to the UK accounted for...

 

Reference list
VisitBritain (2018) Britain's visitor economy facts. Available at: https://www.visitbritain.org/visitor-economy-facts (Accessed: 19 November 2018).

 

 

Elements Example, including punctuation
Author(s) of the chapter/section (surname(s), initial(s)) Ayres, R. 
Year of publication (in brackets) (2015)
Title of the chapter/section (in single quotation marks, followed by comma) 'Lecturing, working with groups and providing individual support',
'in' plus author(s)/editor(s) of the book (surname(s), initial(s)) then (ed.) or (eds) in Fry, H., Ketteridge, S. and Marshall, S. (eds)
Book title (in italics, followed by full stop) A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education.
City of publication (followed by colon) Abingdon:
Publisher (followed by comma) Routledge
Page range of chapter/section pp. 94-106

 

In text citation examples:
...as supported by learning theory (Ayres, 2015). 
or, if you have quoted directly
(Ayres, 2015, p.94)
If you have used the author's surname in your sentence then only the yar of publication is placed after it in brackets, e.g.
Ayres (2015) suggests that...

 

Reference list
Ayres, R. (2015) 'Lecturing, working with groups and providing individual support', in Fry, H., Ketteridge, S. and Marshall, S. (eds) A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 94-106.

 

 

To reference articles from online or print newspapers in the Harvard style, use the below convention.

 

  • Author (or publisher if no author available)
  • Year of Publication
  • Article title (in single quotation marks)
  • Newspaper name (in italics)
  • Date article published
  • Page reference (if taken from print newspaper)
  • URL and access date (if accessed online)

 

Example (online):

In-text citation

...as argued by O'Connor (2018).

Reference list

O'Connor, S. (2018) 'Our robot era demands a different approach to retraining'. Financial Times, 23 January. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/c4bde676-0027-11e8-9650-9c0ad2d7c5b5 (Accessed: 19 March 2018).

 

ft.com referencing in harvard style, elements highlighted

 

Example (print):

In-text citation

...as argued by O'Connor (2018). 

Reference list

O'Connor, S. (2018) 'Our robot era demands a different approach to retraining'. Financial Times, 24 January, p. 11.

 

ft print example

 

 

 

Elements Example, including punctuation
Name of government department Department for Education
Country of origin (in brackets, only needed if referencing reports from multiple countries) (UK)
Year of publication (in brackets) (2018)
Title (in italics, followed by a full stop) Special educational needs in England: January 2018.
Available at :URL address Available at: https://www,gov.uk/ government/statistics/special educational needs

Date accessed (in brackets, followed by a full stop)

(Accessed: 08 August 2018).

 

In text citation examples:

(Department for Education, 2018)

or, if you have quoted directly

The Department for Education (2018, p. 8) report that "SEN support is most prevalent among 10 year-olds".

If you have used the government department's name in your sentence then only the year of publication is placed after it in brackets, e.g.
Figures reported by the Department for Education (2018) further support this.

 

Reference list
Department for Education (UK) (2018) Special educational needs in England: January 2018. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/special-educational-needs-in-england-january-2018 (Accessed: 08 August 2018).

 

 

Elements Example, including punctuation
Title of programme (in italics) Newsnight
Year of broadcast (in brackets) (2018)
Channel name BBC Two
Date of broadcast (day and month, followed by a full stop) 09 November.

In text citation examples:
...as indicated by the response of the Home Secretary when asked directly (Newsnight, 2018). 
or, if you have used a presenter or character's name
Wark (2018) posed this question to the Home Secretary...

Reference list
Newsnight (2018) BBC Two, 09 November.
or, if you have used a presenter or character's name 
Wark, K. (2018) Newsnight. BBC Two, 09 November.

 

 

When referring to a source that an author has made reference to and you're unable to locate the original, you must make a full reference only to the source you have read and not the original source.

You can use the phrase 'cited in' in the in-text citation to demonstrate you have not read the original source.

n.b. wherever possible you should locate, review and reference the original source and not the secondary source.

In text citation examples:
Bandura's theory concerning social learning (1977, cited in Metcalfe, 2017) illustrates the relationship...
or
Bandura (cited in Metcalfe, 2017), in his theory of social learning, illustrates...

Reference list:
Metcalfe, J. (2017) 'Learning from Errors', Annual Review of Psychology, 68 (1), pp. 465-489.

 

To cite from more than one source, you just need to list by year of publication (with oldest first) in your in-text citation and separated by a semicolon(s).

For example:

(Brady, 2011; Adams et al., 2014; Klein and Bassey, 2018)

To reference Fame, or any financial report from an online database in the Harvard style, use the below convention.

  • Publisher
  • Year of Publication
  • Title of company report or extract (in italics)
  • Publisher Web Page
  • Date Accessed

Example:

In-text citation

...as indicated by the most recent figures reported by Interserve (Bureau van Dijk, 2018).

Reference list

Bureau van Dijk (2018) Interserve PLC company report. Available at: http://fame.bvdep.com (Accessed: 19 March 2018).

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