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A guide to referencing styles at GSM London

Citation of Secondary Sources

book image

Authored books (for both print and online) follow the below convention:

author | title (italics) | (additional information, | edition, | publisher | year)


Michael Freeman, Lloyd's Introduction to Jurisprudence (9th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2014)

For edited and translated books cite the editor or translator as you would an author and add in brackets after the name i.e. (ed) or (tr), or (eds) or (trs) if there are multiple editors or translators:

editor(s)/translator(s) | title (italics) | (additional information, | edition, | publisher | year)


Raffaele Russo and Renata Fontana (eds) A Decade of Case Law (IBFD 2008)


Print articles from hard copy journals follow the convention below:


author | 'title' | [year] | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article


author | title | (year) | volume | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article


Articles from online journals follow the convention below:


author, | 'title' | [year] OR (year) | volume/issue | journal name or abbreviation | <web address> | date accessed



website image

Websites  follow the convention below:

author, | 'title' | (site name, date of publication) | <url> | accessed date



UN News Service, 'UN agency helps farmers in Latin America broaden their market horizons' (UN News Centre, 13 December 2017) <> accessed 08 January 2018

oscola website citation example



Citations from newspapers follow the convention below:


author, | 'title' | name of newspaper | (city of publication, date of publication) | page number



Sarah Gordon, 'Corporate fear of cyber attacks grows' Financial Times (London, 08 January 2018) 19

OSCOLA print newspaper citation example

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