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A guide to referencing styles at GSM London

Using Pinpoints

Pinpoint image

The OSCOLA referencing system uses pinpoints to cite specific information like a page, section, subsection or part within a source.

Case Law examples:

To pinpoint a page(s):

R v Leeds County Court, ex p Morris [1990] QB 523 (QB) 530-31

To pinpoint a range of paragraphs:

Bunt v Tilley [2006] EWHC 407 (QB), [2006] 3 All ER 336 [1]-[37]

EU case law example:

When referring to a paragraph(s):

Case C-176/03 Commission v Council [2005] ECR I-7879, paras 47-48

Scholarly article example:

Pinpoint by adding the first page of the article, then a comma, then the specific page:

JAG Griffith, 'The Common Law and the Political Constitution' (2001) 117 LQR 42, 64