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Referencing

A guide to referencing styles at GSM London

What is an in-text citation?

An in-text citation is when you refer to an author's work within the main body of your essay. 

In the Harvard style an in-text citation consists of:

  • author or editor surname(s) (no initials)
  • year of publication
  • a page number(s) if you're quoting someone else's work directly, or if you are referring to an image (e.g) a photograph, table, map, diagram

Writing in-text citations

You should always provide a citation whenever you refer to somebody else's work. This is true if you're paraphrasing (writing and summising in your own words) or quoting directly. However, common knowledge does not require a citation.

 

idea image

Think of it as giving credit for ideas or knowledge that are not your own.

 

Examples

Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina. No reference needed
New York City has one of the best public transport systems in the world. Not necessary (general opinion)
Bogotá is home to the world's largest Ciclovía Recreativa, in which streets are closed temporarily to motorised traffic to provide residents exclusive access for recreation and sports. (Díaz del Castillo et al., 2011)

 

For sources that have two or three authors, all author surnames need to be written as below. However for four or more authors, you only need to write the first surname followed by et al. (abbreviation for et alia - Latin for "and others")

 

Reference type Reference In-text citation example
Book with two authors Bratton, J. and Gold J. (2012) Human Resource Management Theory and Practice. 5th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 

Bratton and Gold (2012) outline...

or

(Bratton and Gold, 2012)

Book with three authors Barrow, C., Barrow, P. and Brown, R. (2012) The Business Plan Workbook. 7th edn. London: Kogan Page.

Barrow, Barrow and Brown (2012) illustrate...

or

(Barrow, Barrow and Brown, 2012)

Book with four or more authors Johnson, G. et al. (2014) Exploring Strategy: Text and Cases. 10th edn. Harlow: Pearson Education.  

Johnson, G. et al. (2014) state...

or

(Johnson et al., 2014)

 

If you want to quote directly, you just need to remember to add a page number to your in-text citation and add quotation marks to the specific part of the text you're quoting.

 

Examples

With regards inequality, Scheidel (2017, p.189) argues that "state failure may create new opportunities of enrichment for the few". 

A typical B2B customer is defined as "the recipient of any final benefits associated with the product or service, much as with an individual consumer" (Barrow, Barrow and Brown, 2012, p. 52).

Bott (2012, p. 81) states "the essence of investment is that money is spent now so as to produce benefits in the future".

 

The most important thing to remember when you're writing is to introduce other people's ideas or viewpoints in a natural way. However, you can find some typically used vocabulary in the below table.

 

When introducing other people's ideas When presenting alternative points of view

Jones (2012) defines...

According to Jones (2012)...

Jones (2012) argues...

Jones (2012) concludes...

As suggested by Jones (2012)...

As indicated by Jones (2012)...

Jones (2012) argues...

By contrast, Jones (2012)...

Jones (2012) challenges this...

Jones (2012) on the other hand...

Jones (2012) contradicts this...

Conversely, Jones (2012) explains...

 

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